A Nation of Cities & New Ways of Life

Topic 9 Section 5 & 6 - PERIOD 3 

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City Development & New Life

Development / Origins / Explanation

Examples (Famous, Noteworthy, or Pittsburgh)

9.5 Begins Here

Urbanization 1860-1900 & City Dwellers

Urbanization: The process of making an area more city like ( in the USA’s case it meant the growth of cities)

City Dweller: A person who lives in a city

  • Urbanization happened because of large demand of factory workers in cities
  • (happened near large bodies of water most of the time because large bodies of water were often necessary for shipping and manufacturing goods.)
  • Wealthy city dwellers lived in urban mansions, while the poor lived in tenement houses.

Tenement House: an apartment building with small rooms, no ventilation, and poor sanitation.

  • 11 million Americans moved to urban areas between 1870 and 1920 and the majority of the 25million immigrants moved to cities
  • (by 1920 there were more Americans that lived in cities than rural areas)
  • By 1900 nearly 40% of all Americans lived in cities
  • In 1840, about 2,100 people lived in Pittsburgh.
  • By 1855, almost 50,000 people lived in Pittsburgh
  • By 1880, about 150,000 lived here
  • By 1910, more than 500,000 people lived here
  • By 1900, more than 40,000 people in Pittsburgh had jobs in the steel business.


Steel was first mass-produced to create railroad rails, but architects and enguneers thought the possibility was greater than just railroad rails. Skyscrapers had ten stories and taller steel frames surrounding the building. The Bessemer process  allowed major advancements in skyscraper construction.

James Bogardus built the Cast Iron Building with a ridgid frame of iron, helping the support of the floors and the roof. In 1888, the Alleghany County Courthouse was a five floor building, which was the first skyscaper in Pittsburgh, Pa. In 1895, the Carnegie building rose on Fifth street avenue. The building was a thirteen floor building. It was the first steel framed building in Pittsburgh.

Sources: “Skyscraper Buildings.” Britannica.com. 2019,2019 https://www.britannica.com/technology/skyscraper . Accessed 27 February, 2020.

“Skyscrapers in Pittsburgh.” Brookline Connection.com. 2015, 2015, http://www.brooklineconnection.com/history/Facts/Skyscraper6th.html.  Accessed 27 February, 2020.

Otis Elevators

Elshia Otis invented the Otis elevators. The elevators were a big step for elevators. The elevators met the safty standards, by making sure the elevator car wouldnt fall if the lifting rope would fall.

In 1857, the newest safety feature was operational in a New York City department store. In 1878, the Otis company introduced a faster, more economical hydraualic elevator.    

Sources: “Ups & Downs: The Evoultion of Elevators.” Livescience.com. 2016, 2016, https://www.livescience.com/57282-elevator-history.html. Accessed 27 February, 2020.

“Elisha Otis.” Wikipedia.org. 2018,2018  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elisha_Otis. Accessed 27 February, 2020.

1860-1900 Mass Transit: Problems & Solutions

  • Mass Transit: public transportation, especially in urban areas
  • Trolleys, cable cars, and subways were all forms of mass transit
  • They made it convenient for people that lived far away from their workplace
  • Noise, traffic jams, slums, air pollution, sanitation, and health problems became common
  • Mass transit increased speed, traveling time, and carried larger groups of people
  • Elevated railways were disruptive, and poured ash onto people in the streets
  • Streetcars and trolleys were a cheap way of traveling, but they contributed to the rising of congestion problems
  • Steam power became electric for trains

The Fort Pitt Incline(Pittsburgh)- The incline was built in 1882 to transport people from the Birmingham Street Bridge. The incline extended from North end of Tenth Street Bridge to Bluff St Unfortunately, traffic became too heavy to maintain and closed in 1906.


Chicago 1893 World’s Columbian Exhibition

- first word fair in Chicago

- took place in Jackson Park designed by Frederic Law Olmsted

- fair would prompt development in Chicago’

- celebrated the 400th anniversary of America being discovered by Christopher Columbus

- served to show how Chicago recovered after the great chicago fire

- first Ferris Wheel

- first cracker jack

- the hamburger was introduced

- juicy fruit gum

-first diet soda

-first serial killer killed 50 people at fair (H. H. Holmes)

  • N/A

Frederic Law Olmsted

- landscape engineer

- designed Fairmount Park

- born 1822, died 1903

- designed Jackson Park which held Chicago’s World fair

-1858 he and Calvert Maux won a contest to design

- designed a lot of the green spaces in Chicago

- also designed a lot of green spaces around the country

- designed the grounds of the Capitol Building

- father of American Agricultural Landscape

- Designed parts of Chatham University landscape in Pittsburgh



  • Massive influx of immigrants needing cheap homes ousing near factories caused a housing boom
  • Immigrants needed a house that was in walking distance of the factory so tenements were created
  • Houses were tall, cramped, and lacked necessary plumbing and ventilation
  • Normal constructed with poor materials and cheap workers so safety and comfort weren't considered
  •  By 1900, some 2.3 million people two-thirds of New York City’s population were living in tenement housing
  • Designed to fit as many people in as small a space a possible
  • tenement building had five to seven stories, 25 feet wide and 100 feet long, according to existing city regulations
  • Tenement owners lived rich lives profiteering of the backs of the poor immigrants


  • neighborhood called "The Bottoms,"  in Pittsburgh
  • immigrants came to work in the P&LE Railroad and Pressed Steel factories
  • The work was laborious and dangerous
  • Many workers died due to poor safety regulations, leading to the bloody McKees Rocks Strike of 1909.
  • Chicago fire of 1881 was helped by the abundance of poorly constructed wooden tenements in the center of the city
  • cholera epidemic in 1849 took 5,000 lives most of them poor people living in Tenements
  • New York draft riots were caused over protests of poor living conditions  

Urban Public Health and Safety 1860-1900


  • Public health was very bad for lower class and common laborers
  • Cities in the late 1800s were filthy
  • Tenements were perfect places for breeding epidemics and disease
  • Tenements often put many people into one room/ multiple families into one room
  • Big Business mass production over workers- bad working conditions- lead to physical injuries and a plethora of workers got sick a lot
  • Value was on profit not workers
  • Wages kept low causing people to not have enough to seek medical attention when needed[a]


  • 19-th century known as “The Great Sanitary Awakening”
  •  Edwin Chadwick - british lawyer that proposed the “sanitary idea”
  • Lemuel Shattuck conducted research concluding that bad working conditions threatened an entire community- this lead to an improvement in working conditions

  • Tenement bathrooms often overflowed
  • Equipment often faulty
  • By 1900s the amount of deaths 25,000-35,000/ year
  • Number of injuries/ year was 1 mil
  • John Griscom published The Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of New York in 1848.
  •  the establishment of the first public agency for health, the New York City Health Department, in 1866
  •  boards of health were established in Louisiana, California, the District of Columbia, Virginia, Minnesota, Maryland, and Alabama 1866

1871 Great Chicago Fire

  • Happened from october 8-11 in 1871 (lasted 3 days)
  • Started in or around patrick and catherine o’leary barn, rumor is there cow knocked over a lighted lantern but catherine denied it and the the true cause was never found
  • Over 17,000 thousand structures burnt down (not including transportation and physical infrastructure)
  • Killed a estimated 300 people
  • Cost around 200 million dollars in damage
  • Left over 100,000 people homeless
  • Reconstruction efforts started fast and the economy blossomed (before fire 340,000 people lived in chicago, but in 9 years there were 500,000)
  • A month after the fire joseph medill was elected mayor and he promised to introduced stricter regulation and frie codes (most believe shouldn't be mayor because voting record were burned in fire)
  • Eventually chicago was rebuilt in a more modern way than before and had about 1 million people living there in1980, only New York City had more in all of the United states. Also held world's columbian exposition in 1893 (still a torist attraction)        
  • Pittsburgh also had a great fire in 1845
  • The cow theory is still a theory for the beginning of the chicago great fire today

9.6 Begins Here

Department Stores & Mail-Order shopping

Department Stores

  • Factories were able to produce products at very high volumes
  • Urban areas used department stores for goods
  • Department stores usually had mass-produced goods, which were usually cheap
  • Department stores sold small amounts of many varieties of goods
  • Department stores used fair pricing on products so “haggling” was not involved

Mail-Order Shopping

  • Rural communities used mail-order catalogs
  • Rural families ordered goods to be shipped to them because department stores were too far
  • Mail orders were advertised in newspapers
  • Amount of mail-ordering spiked quality in postal service
  • Offered goods for farmers who were poor at a cheap price
  • Improved lifestyle of residents living in rural areas-allowed them to order goods from distant areas

  • JC Penny, Montgomery Ward, and Sears & Roebuck used catalogs, which displayed the products to people living in rural areas
  • E. C. Allen's People's Literary Companion and P. O. Vickery's Comfort were popular mail-order magazines that only had product advertisements
  • Alexander Turney Stewart - father of department stores
  • Montgomery Ward invented mail-ordering (1872)

1860-1900 New, Higher Standard of Living

-lighting was installed in almost every home

-telephone allowed for long distance calls and created a way to spread news quickly 1876

-the first pro baseball team allowed people to enjoy sports professionally

-yellow stone national park was founded creating a butterfly affect of national parks to be founded

-first mail order catalog allowed for people to get goods with out leaving

-blue jeans were also invented allowingn

-19 amendment susan b anthony

-brooklyn bridge

-andrew carnegie steel tycoon

-thomas edison~lightbulb

-alexander graham bell~ telephone

-ulysses grant~ yellowstone


-  1870-1900 Newspaper Increased 600- 1000+

- Some newspapers catered to immigrants (Philadelphia Tribune, The Forward)

- Usually very small print, large pictures

- Joseph Pulitzer started most successful newspaper in 1870’s the World 

- Pulitzer bought several large newspaper companies (New York Journal, New York World)

- Very inexpensive b/c they were supported by businesses' ads

- Played crucial role in exposing scandals and public officials

-  Often took strong political stances

- Joseph Pulitzer & William Randolph Hurst very engaging in Yellow Journalism

- Yellow Journalism reckless & provocative newspaper style

- High of Y.J. encouraging public to support Spanish-American War

- The Pittsburgh Press Newspaper popular in 1880’s (now the PPG)

- Pittsburgh Daily Dispatch (1880’s)

- Almost 8,000 Newspapers from Pittsburgh

- Pittsburgh newspapers had religious icons incorporated

- Most Popular Newspaper: Boston Daily Advertiser, Charleston Courier, New York Journal of Commerce

- Most of the large, popular newspaper, written and published in New York


~ During the Gilded age, women were encouraged to increase their reading abilities and intelligence. This steady increase in literate women enabled magazines to become a popular pastime for men and women, in the increasingly literate America.

~ The magazine that is considered the first to be published in the United States was established in 1741. It was based off British magazines at the time, which had already been popularized.  Due to being the first magazine in the US, it was appropriately titled “The American Magazine”

~ After this, reading magazines became an incredibly popular past-time, with more than a 100 different magazines being published in the U.S by the end of the 18th century alone

~ Originally magazines were very expensive so only the rich could afford them, but by the 1830’s less expensive magazines made specifically for less wealthy individuals emerged. These new magazines aimed for the general public were focused mainly on amusement and entertainment, rather than the magazines for the rich which focused on intellectual value.

Famous and Noteworthy Magazines

~ In 1888, the National Geographic Magazine was founded. The National Geographic was focused on scientific findings and beautiful photography. The magazine originally used most of the money it earned to fund scientific research and studies. Today it is still focused on science and world events, continuing to be highly respected in the world of magazines.

~ Another example of a very famous magazine companies start was none other than the first weekly news magazine, published in 1923. Known today as TIME magazine, it is known for covering accurate, credible news stories that are both international and on the national scale.

~ The first Home and Gardens magazine was first published in the same year as Times, in 1923. Today, it is the fifth largest magazine in America, and was filled with decorating, entertaining, and gardening suggestions.

~ One example of a very famous magazine that was influential early on was the Massachusetts Magazine.

~ Another prominent example of an important magazine early on was published here in Pennsylvania, by Thomas Paine. Thomas Paine’s periodical {the term used for magazines originally} was called the Pennsylvania Magazine, which he worked on from his home in Philly

~ the Magazine industry in the Gilded Age was a prominent industry, which is still important today, with many famous magazines from all across the U.S




Popular Novels[b]

  • Often [c]modeled socio-economic situations at the time; took a critical look at society and how it functioned
  • Critical of growing business power and government corruption
  • “Rags to riches” ideas were outlined in more optimistic novels
  • Capitalism was often frowned on[d] due to the current economic situation
  • Many novels outlined exploitation of workers


Stephen Crane  - Maggie: A Girl of the Streets

  • Explored the harsh realities of New York ghettos

Horatio Alger - Ragged Dick

  • New York rags to riches story

Edith Wharton - The Age of Innocence

  • Challenged common ideals at the time, concerning business empires and work exploitation

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels - The Communist Manifesto

  • Expanded on the ideas of socialism; Denounced capitalism, focusing on ideals of public property and government control

Henry Adams - Democracy

  • Focused on political corruption and inefficiency present at the time

Edward Bellamy - Looking Backwards

  • was both an indictment of the capitalistic system and an imaginative picturing of a utopia achieved by a collectivist society in the year 2000.

Music - Ragtime / Tin Pan Alley

Tin Pan Alley

In New York City there was a bunch of major publishers located in a very close proximity to one another. This location became known as the Tin Pan Alley. The Tin Pan Alley is what helped create modern day broadway.

It. The Tin Pan Alley created the American society of composers which was formed in 1914 which protected and wanted the best for composers and publishers.


Ragtime was a Form of a military type Beat usually in the form A-A-B-B-A-C-C-D-D

It combined Military and syncopated music together. Ragtime made owning a Piano a Status Symbol by increasing its popularity by creating good music to go along with it. Ragtime was extremely popular until the excitement died for it shortly after the outbreak of world war 1.

Tin pan alley

The following people are who made the Tin Pan Alley popular.

Irving Berlin, “Alexander’s rag time band” and George Gershwin’s “Swanee.” Usually the tin  Pan alley composers worked for writing ballads and comic novelty songs.


The top composers for this genre include Scott Joplin, Joseph lamb and James Scott.

1860-1900 Public Education

  • Few states gave free public education
  • Some churches and citizens started their own schools, this gave the teacher freedom in their practice rather than a board of education.
  • Many schools were very small, students mainly memorized rather than wrote.
  • Corporal punishment was used and sometimes even promoted.
  • All public schools were completely segregated.
  • 1 out of 5 teachers had degrees, allowing for higher education.
  • First public school in Pittsburgh Central High School in 1855.
  • First ever US public school was Boston English High School in 1820.
  • Public education for Americanization is formed.

Amusement Parks

  • Started as picnic ground for men to relax after their work
  • They could go to see expensive entertainment and have expensive food
  • Paul Boyton- first amusement park was called boytons water chute and it closed 1908
  • Opened a second one in coney island in 1895
  • The first park to charge an admission fee
  • Kennywood (1898-present day)
  • started as a small trolley park
  • Has the second biggest thomas and friends attraction in north america
  • The garfield ride which was originally called the only mill ride in 1901 has changed multiple times over the years but the ride itself is the oldest continually operating dark water ride and it has lasted 115 years
  • Was created by the monongahela street railway company as a diversion for mill workers and their families  
  • Luna park (1901-1909)
  • Now closed
  • Was around from 1905-1909
  • It stood where the university of pittsburgh stands today
  • Idlewild (1878-present day)
  • Built next to the ligonier valley railroad and it had campgrounds on both sides of the track and there was even a station right outside of the park
  • They made a fake lake for boats and fishing and added a large hall for dancing and games
  • Olympia park (1901-1942)
  • A trolly park made my the West Penn Railway Company
  • Made by William Clarlington

Buffalo Bill Cody

William F. “Buffalo Bill” Cody was born February 26, 1846, in Scott County, Iowa.

  • At 13, he worked first as a messenger and wrangler for a freight company, then as a prospector, and at 14 joined as a courier for the short-lived Pony Express.
  • After  serving in the Civil War, in 1867 he began to hunt buffalo to feed  the railroads’  construction crews. At his own estimate, he shot 4,280 in under two years, and earned him his nickname.
  • In 1868, he rejoined the Army as a scout, earning the Congressional Medal of Honor in 1872 (it was later rescinded and then reinstated)
  • At the same time that he was scouting, he was simultaneously made famous by dime novels (the Buffalo Bill series) by Edward Judson, under the pen name Ned Buntline. He eventually left the Army to perform in stage versions of the novels.
  • In 1883, he hosted a large performance- and extravaganza- called the “Wild West, Rocky Mountain, and Prairie Exhibition”. It was such a success that he took it on the road, romanticizing the image of the West in the eyes of many Americans and, later, Europeans.
  • Although records of the shows are incomplete in my sources, given Pittsburgh’s prominence in the late 1800s, he almost certainly performed here.
  • In addition to being a success in America, he was received with acclaim in his European tours. However, his fame and popularity had waned by the early 1900s, and the show company went bankrupt in 1913. William Cody continued touring until 2 months before his death, but never regained his popularity due to the growing film industry. He died in 1917.

““Buffalo Bill’s Wild West” show

opens”, History.com, A&E Television Networks, July 28, 2019. https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/buffalo-bills-wild-west-show-opens, accessed February 27, 2020

“Buffalo Bill Cody”, Biography.com, A&E Television Networks, June 28, 2019. https://www.biography.com/performer/buffalo-bill-cody, accessed February 27, 2020


  • P.T. Barnum transformed Circus in Gilded Age
  • Became an important part of life as strong social and economic phenomenon
  • Barnum & Bailey (the most popular circus during this time period)  referred to themselves as “Greatest Show on Earth!”
  •  “Circus billposters marked the landscape, claimed it, and transformed it months before the actual onslaught of crowds, tents, and animals” - Janet Davis
  • Multiple forms of performances interacted with many elements of American history such as: mass culture, the nation-state, and industrialization
  • 1820, over thirty traveling menageries in eastern US
  • Showmen recognized dangerous acts with animals increased ticket sales
  • 1825 Joshua Purdy Brown placed circus under tent for first time

  • Gained popularity by amusements such as:  Vaudeville, minstrel shows, equestrian shows, traveling menageries

Chautauqua Circuit

  • Sponsored lectures and entertainment along the Chautauqua Lake
  • Founded by John Heyl Vincent & Lewis Miller in 1874
  • At first it was a summer school for Methodist Sunday school teacher
  • Soon became a cross between community college and college fair, with lectures on intellectual subjects, music, exotic food, and crowd-pleasing attractions
  • Chautauqua leaders would transport their tents to small towns all across America to deliver comic storytelling, bands and singers, and lectures on politics or morals
  • Families could stay at a camp for as long as 2 weeks
  • Roosevelt called the Chautauqua “the most American thing”
  • Was training ground for women to start their “real” career
  • Existing chautauqua are thriving today and ones from the past are being brought up again
  • people still visit the Chautauqua Institute


Vaudeville / Minstrel Shows

minstrel shows

-minstrel shows were “comedy” acts dedicated to the mockery of african americans

-was also called “minstrelsy” or “blackface minstrelsy”

-the original performer was Thomas Dartmouth Rice- he painted his face black and was nicknamed jim crow

-the most significant performer was christy minstrels, who performed these shows on broadway for almost 10 years.

-after the civil war, even african americans were casted.


-vaudeville was adopted in the US from the Parisian Boulevard Theatre.

-most likely means “vaux de vire”, satirical songs that originated in Normandy France.

-the off-color shows were created primarily for men

-tony pastor was a minstrel singer who made the first “respectable” vaudeville.

-in 1881, he created a theatre in NYC dedicated to family-friendly vaudeville.

-during the great depression, vaudeville declined, and when television and radio became popularized, it virtually dissapeared

Minstrel shows

-luckily, minstrel shows arent common anymore, but in 2018, the mayor destroyed a controversial statue of minstrel songwriter Stephen Foster and a slave and replaced it with a statue honoring colored women.


Although there is not a direct reference to vaudeville in Pittsburgh history, comedy circuses were common and there are still some traveling acts to this day.


  • Early movie theaters were called nickelodeons
  • They were the first type of indoor exhibition space dedicated to showing projected motion pictures
  • They costed a nickel for admission
  • Named for a combination of the admission cost and the greek word for theater “odeion”
  • Although they typically lasted 15 mins to 1 hour, they usually showed short films, about 15 to 20 mins in length in a variety of styles and subjects such as short narratives
  • They were also sometimes accompanied by a piano to create dynamic feelings
  • Often programs ran continuously and patrons would join a program already in progress when they arrived and stay as long as they liked
  • While some nickelodeons only showed films, others offered shows that combined films with illustrated songs
  • Smaller nickelodeons typically seated fewer than 200, they often had hard wooden chairs
  • The larger theaters sometimes had the capacity for well over 1000 people
  • It was estimated that by 1910 as many as 26 million Americans visited these theaters every week
  • By 1908 there was an estimated 8,000 nickelodeons established in America
  • First nickelodeon opened was on June 19, 1905 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
  • It was developed by the showman Harry Davis
  • Although the dedication plaque lists the first film shown at the nickelodeon as The Baffled Burglar, it was not made until years later
  • Some historians believe the first film was The Great Train Robbery, made by Edwin S. Porter, it was wildly popular
  • Made a parody of his own film called The Little Train Robbery

Sports - Baseball

  • National league started in 1876-present
  • Been around for years
  • Major cities stared teams
  • To pay- advertisements on stadium billboards
  • “Take me out to the ball game”-1908
  • By 1900 african americans had their own teams
  • Moses Fleetwood Walker-first AA player in major league (1884)
  • first woman- Alta Weiss (1907)
  • White sox accused of throwing the world series against cincinnati reds(1919)
  • The pittsburgh pirates
  • Founded-1887
  • first world series- pittsburgh pirates & boston pilgrims
  • world series not played

Sports - Bicycles

  • The first bicycle was invented in 1817
  • It made by Baron Karl to get around more easily while working in the Royal Gardens
  • He thought about a two wheeled platform propelled by your feet
  • The original “bicycle was called a hobby horse
  • Before we had a design with two similar sized wheels, the most common design was the “penny-farthing bicycle which had a huge front wheel and a very high seat
  • Penny-farthings became quite popular in the 1870’s and 1880’s
  • People realized the danger that Penny-Farthings caused so they looked for alternative designs
  • Englishman John Kemp Starley made a “safety bicycle” that has similarly sized wheels which is the design for the bicycle that you know today
  • Shortly after, brakes were added to design and the were all the rage around America and Britain in the 1890’s
  • A New York Times article in 1896 even claimed that bicycles were “a splendid expansion of personal power and freedom”
  • Penny-farthing races occurred during the height of its popularity
  • Penny-farthings were better on rougher surfaces and faster than most bicycles at that time but was quite dangerous
  • The penny-farthing had a 5 foot seats so they were dangerous to operate
  • Once the “modern day” bicycle was developed, they were mass produced and became popular in large cities
  • A german immigrant, and man who live in Pittsburgh, Frank Lenz, tried to bike around the globe in a bicycle in 1892
  • Frank Lenz, a captain of the Allegany cyclers, managed to make it across China, India, and Persia
  • He then wrote a book called Bicycle:The History which shown the early history of bicycles in Pittsburgh

Sports - Basketball

Founder James Naismith

  • Canadian immigrant, receiving degree for physical education at Springfield (Mass.) College
  • Tasked with creating active indoor winter game
  • Created “basket ball”

Contributions to Basketball

  • American rugby - passing
  • English rugby - jump ball
  • Lacrosse - goal
  • Soccer - ball size and shape
  • Duck-on-a-rock (Canadian game) - ball should be tossed, not thrown

Early Basketball

  • Peach baskets used for goals
  • 9 players per team play at a time
  • 13 original rules - many still used or adapted today
  • 15 minute halves, 5 minute halftime
  • Extremely popular
  • Spread very quickly and became an official winter sport in 1905

Professional Basketball

  • 1898 - first professional league: National Basketball League
  • Included teams from New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania

Olympic Basketball

  • Basketball was not an official Olympic sport until after World War I, but was a popular demonstration sport in the 1904 Olympics in St. Louis

College Basketball

  • Very popular competition of basketball
  • First teams: Vanderbilt University (Tennessee) and Geneva College (Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania - near Pittsburgh)
  • 1896: Colleges make five-on-five basketball
  • First five-on-five game: University of Chicago vs. University of Iowa
  • Tournaments held between groups of teams
  • College teams participated in Olympic demonstration (1904), won by Hiram College

[a]Keeping wages low was justified by David Ricardo's "Iron Law of Wages" that stated that higher wages would result in more children. This, in turn, would increase the number of people that need jobs, lowering the amount of available jobs.

[b]Dickstein, Morris R., and James R. Giles. “Critics of the    Gilded Age.” Encyclopedia Britannica, Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 5 Dec. 2018, www.britannica.com/art/American-literature/Critics-of-the-gilded-age.

[c]In general, novels critiqued society as it was at the time: capitalist and business oriented, utilizing worker exploitation.

[d]With the growing criticism of capitalism, many novels outlined the benefits to implementing a socialist society